Grassy-type Lawn Weeds
Grassy weeds are usually more difficult to identify than broadleaf weeds. Grassy weeds
are true grasses or monocots. A grass seed germinates and emerges as one single leaf. It develops
hollow, rounded stems and nodes (joints) that are closed and hard. The leaf blades alternate
on each side of the stem, are much longer than they are wide and have parallel veins.
A weed’s life cycle has great impact on the selection and success of a given control
procedure, so it is important to learn the life cycle characteristics of a weed when you first
learn its identity.
Common Grassy Weeds:
Grassy Weed Name
|| Annual bluegrass thrives in cool, moist weather or damp, shaded locations. Annual bluegrass produces hundreds of whitish green seed heads at any mowing height.
is an annual, fine textured "creeping grass" that grows and spreads rapidly via rhizomes and stolons during warm summer months.
|| Crabgrass is a warm season annual grass which grows best in the heat of midsummer when desirable lawn grasses are often semi-dormant and offer little or no competition.
|| Dallis grass is a perennial grass with light-green color. Dallis is easily identified by its long seed-heads that protrude from the top. Dallis tends to thrive in wet areas with lots of heat, and grows in circles out from the center of the weed.
|| While sometimes confused with crabgrass, foxtails (also called wild millet) produces a large robust seed head. Its texture is coarse and forms tufts in mowed lawns.
|| Goosegrass, also called wiregrass, is an annual that grows as a compressed plant in turf. Leaves are distinctly folded and may be smooth or have a few hairs. It's found in a wide range of settings, but tolerates compacted, dry areas where desirable turfgrasses have thinned out.
|| Johnsongrass (also called grass sorghum, egyptian millet) is a perennial species over most of its range. Leaves are grass like, up to 1 inch wide, with a prominent whitish midvein.
|| Nimblewill is a warm-season perennial weed found throughout North America east of the Rockies. Nimblewill invades cool-season grasses by both seed and stems. It has a shallow root system.
||Quackgrass (also known as: couch, quitch, devils, wheat, scutch, twitch, witch, dog or durfa grass) are undesirable perennial grasses that grow as weeds in many lawns. Unfortunately there is no herbicide you can use that will not also kill the desirable lawn grasses.
Controlling annual grassy weeds in turf
Many recently introduced turfgrasses are vastly superior to older types, especially
in their tolerance to wide ranges of cultural and environmental conditions.
Unfortunately, even superior turfgrass cultivars have limits to what they
can tolerate. In most cases, when cultural or environmental conditions surpass
minimum turfgrass tolerance levels, problems arise. For example, the presence
of annual grassy weeds such as crabgrass, goosegrass, barnyardgrass, fall
panicum, and yellow foxtail indicates problem growing conditions that allow
these weeds to be more competitive than the desirable turf.
Management practices that discourage annual grassy weed growth of turf
fertilizing according to soil test recommendations, making sure
adequate nutrients are available during periods of active turf growth;
deeply and infrequently, allowing the soil surface to dry between watering;
mowing at the proper height (2" — 2 1⁄2" for most cool season
core cultivating, dethatching, or power raking during the
fall when the turf is actively growing and weed seeds are less likely to germinate.
Proper turf management is primary to a weed control program.
In some situations, turf is grown in environments that favor weed growth
and development. Many annual grassy weeds are more tolerant of wet or compacted
soils or shade than are turfgrasses. Altering the growing environment to
favor the turfgrass can shift the competitive edge away from weeds.
The bottom line is that turfgrass breeding, selection, and evaluation has
greatly improved turfgrasses. However, even new and improved turf selections
are incapable of competing with weeds when mismanaged or planted into
unfavorable environments. If producing high-quality turf is important, cultural
practices and environmental alterations that enhance turf growth relative to
weed growth are the basis of a sound weed management program.
Chemical Control of Annual Grassy Weeds
Maintaining a dense, vigorous turf is the best weed control. Occasionally, herbicide
applications are mandated to reduce weed populations to tolerable levels.
When annual grassy weeds such as crabgrass, goosegrass, barnyardgrass,
fall panicum, or yellow foxtail become a problem, preventive pre emergence
herbicides are often used for control. A number of pre emergence herbicides
are recommended by the University of Illinois Extension. When using any pesticide,
read, understand, and follow the label directions for the safest, most
efficient pest control.
Several general recommendations can be made when using these products.
For annual grass control, apply pre emergence herbicides prior to germination. The soil temperatures necessary for weed seed germination vary by species. For example, crabgrass germinates when soil temperatures are greater than 55 to 60 F for 7 to 10 consecutive days and continues to germinate
in soil temperatures to 95 F. Goosegrass begins germinating when soil
temperatures are above 65 F for several weeks, and yellow foxtail germinates
at soil temperature of 68 to 92 F. Barnyardgrass germinates at soil temperatures
between 72 and 90 F. The optimum soil temperature for fall panicum
germination is 80 F. Monitor soil temperature, and apply a pre emergence
herbicide prior to reaching the weed germination temperature. This insures
that the herbicide will be in place before weeds begin to germinate.
Conduct any cultivation practices, such as core aerification or dethatching
prior or to herbicide application.
Water following application according to the herbicide label direction.
To lengthen the period of weed control, make a second application of the
herbicide at a later date. Follow the specific label directions for rates and
- Consult individual pre emergence herbicide labels for the specific waiting
period between herbicide application and overseeding or reestablishment.
Spring seeding can produce stands of quality turf, provided weeds are controlled
and adequate moisture is available for summer survival. Only one
pre emergence herbicide, siduron (Tupersan), is labeled for application to
newly seeded areas for annual grass control. All other labeled pre emergence
herbicides have waiting periods between applications and seeding. Avoid
applying a pre emergence herbicide immediately before installing sod.